The Comfort of Knitted Materials for Sportswear: A Focus on Air and Water Vapour Permeability

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14502/tekstilec.66.2024029

Keywords:

yarn, fabric, knitwear, air permeability, water vapour permeability, sportswear, mechanical functionalisation

Abstract

Factors such as the growing popularity of sports, changing lifestyles and the increasing number of sporting events contribute significantly to the popularity of sports textiles. Sports textiles play an important role in the performance of athletes, as they need to provide freedom of movement and comfort to the wearer during activity. In this paper, seven conventional and high-performance polyamide and polyester yarns were selected for the development of knitted fabrics for sportswear. The fabrics were manufactured as single jersey and double jersey structures, both with and without incorporated elastane yarn. The fabrics manufactured were tested for mass per unit area, fabric thickness, fabric density, porosity, air permeability and water vapour permeability. The results of the study indicate that the air permeability of all four fabric groups shows a strong correlation with the measured porosity. The average water vapour permeability of single jersey fabrics is significantly higher than that of double jersey fabrics, and the addition of elastane leads to a further reduction. The correlation between the water vapour permeability and the thickness of single jersey, elastane-plated single jersey and double jersey fabrics is negative.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

BARTELS, V.T. Physiological comfort of sportswear. In: Textiles in sport. Edited by R. Shishoo. Cambridge : Woodhead Publishing, 2005, 176–203, doi: 10.1533/9781845690885.3.177.

Performance knited fabrics market analysis [online]. Fact.MR [accessed 3.1.2024]. Available on World Wide Web: <https://www.factmr.com/report/performance-knitted-fabrics-market>.

Sports textiles market report, global forecast from 2023 to 2031 [online]. Dataintelo [accessed 5.1.2024]. Available on World Wide Web: <https://dataintelo.com/report/global-sports-textiles-market/.

SHISHOO, R. Introduction. In Textiles in sport. Edited by R. Shishoo. Cambridge : Woodhead Publishing, 2005, 1–11.

DHANAPALA, S. An overview of the sportswear market. In Materials and technology for sportswear and performance apparel. Edited by Steven George Hayes and Praburaj Venkatraman. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2016, 1–22.

Sportech textiles market analysis report 2023-2027 [online]. Technavio [accessed 5.1.2024]. Available on World Wide Web: <https://www.technavio.com/report/sportech-textiles-market-industry-analysis>.

HATAMLOU, M., ÖZGÜNEY, A. T., ÖZDIL, N., MENGÜÇ, S.G. Performance of recycled PET and conventional PES fibers in case of watertransport properties. Industria Textila. 2020, 71(6), 538-544, doi: 10.35530/IT.071.06.1691.

CLAUSSEN, L., LLOYD, A., RUIZ, D., HAVENITH, G. Recycled versus virgin polyester sportswear – can a difference be perceived in actual use? International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, 2024 [in press], doi: 10.1080/17543266.2023.224742.

CHOI, Y. J., KIM, S.H. Characterization of recycled polyethylene terephthalates and polyethylene terephthalate – nylon6 blend knitted fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 2015, 85(4), 337–345, doi:10.1177/0040517514547207.

SOUZA, J. M., SAMPAIO, S., SILVA, W.C., de LIMA, S.G., ZILLE, A., FANGUEIRO, R. Characterization of functional single jersey knitted fabrics using non-conventional yarns for sportswear. Textile Research Journal, 2018, 88(3), 275–292, doi: 10.1177/0040517516677226.

DAUKANTIENE, V., VADEIKE, G. Evaluation of the air permeability of elastic knitted fabrics and their assemblies. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 2018, 30(6), 839–853, doi: 10.1108/IJCST-02-2018-0021.

SABIR, T., WOOD. J. Fabrics for performance clothing. In Materials and Technology for Sportswear and Performance Apparel. Edited by Steven George Hayes and Praburaj Venkatraman. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2016, 87–102.

VENKATRAMAN, P. Fibres for sportswear. In Materials and technology for sportswear and performance apparel. Edited by Steven George Hayes and Praburaj Venkatraman. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2016, 23–52.

HARLIN, A., JUSSILA, K., ILEN, E. Sports textiles and comfort aspects. In High performance technical textiles. Edited by Roshan Paul. Hoboken : Wiley, 2019, doi: 10.1002/9781119325062.ch3.

7 things you need to know about polyester [online]. ISPO [accessed 3.2.2024]. Available on World Wide Web: <https://www.ispo.com/en/products/7-things-you-need-know-about-polyester>.

HALLETT, C., JOHNSTON, A. Fabric for fashion: the complete guide. London : Laurence King, 2014, 192–196.

The benefits of sportswear nylon fabrics [online]. Yitai Knitting [accessed 15.1.2024]. Available on World Wide Web: <https://www.yitaifabrics.com/news/the-benefits-of-sportswear-nylon-fabrics.html>.

MILITKÝ, J., VENKATARAMAN, M., MISHRA, R. The chemistry, manufacture, and tensile behavior of polyamide fibers. In Handbook of properties of textile and technical fibres. Edited by Anthony R. Bunsell. Cambridge : Woodhead Publishing, 2018, 367–420, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-101272-7.00012-2.

KEJKAR, V., DHORE, R. Active sportswear fabrics. Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, 2019, 5(2), 603–608, doi: 10.31031/tteft.2019.05.000606.

GILL, S., PRENDERGAST, J. Garment fit and consumer perception of sportswear. In Materials and technology for sportswear and performance apparel. Edited by Steven George Hayes and Praburaj Venkatraman. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2016, 245–260.

VENKATRAMAN, P. Fabric properties and their characteristics. In Materials and technology for sportswear and performance apparel. Edited by Steven George Hayes and Praburaj Venkatraman. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2016, 53–86.

Development of functional knitted sportswear fabric [online]. Shaoxing Liuyi Textile [accessed 10.1.2024]. Available on World Wide Web: <https://www.lymeshfabric.com/news/development-of-functional-knitted-sportswear-fabric/>.

HU, J., LU, J. Recent developments in elastic fibers and yarns for sportswear. In Textiles for sportswear. Edited by Roshan Shishoo. Cambridge : Elsevier, 2015, 53–76, doi: 10.1016/B978-1-78242-229-7.00003-5.

ANGELOVA, R.A. Textiles and human thermophysiological comfort in the indoor environment. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2015, 3–10.

SAVILLE, B.P. Physical testing of textiles. Cambridge : Woodhead Publishing, 1999, 209–243.

AHMAD, F., AKHTAR, K.S., ANAM, W. MUSHTAQ, B., RASHEED, A., AHMAD, S., AZAM, F., NAWAB, Y. Recent developments in materials and manufacturing techniques used for sports textiles. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2023, 2023, 1–20, doi: 10.1155/2023/2021622.

RAMRATAN, KUMAR, R., SOOD, S. A study on porosity related aspects of cotton knitted fabric with single jersey structure for improved comfort application for garment. Journal of Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, 2020, 6(5), 199–204, doi: 10.15406/jteft.2020.06.00251.

MEZARCIÖZ, S., OĞULATA, R.T. Modelling of porosity in knitted fabrics. Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering, 2015, 1, 1–3, doi: 10.4172/2329-9568.S1-005.

ABDOLMALEKI, S., JEDDI ALI, A.A., AMANI, M. Estimation on the 3D porosity of plain knitted fabric under uniaxial extension. Fibers and Polymers, 2012, 13(4), p. 535–541, doi: 10.1007/s12221-012-0535-8.

GUIDOIN, R., KING, M., MARCEAUAT, D., CARDOU, A. Textile arterial prostheses: Is water permeability equivalent to porosity? Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 1987, 21(1), 65–87, doi: 10.1002/jbm.820210111.

JAKŠIĆ, D., JAKŠIĆ, N. Assessment of porosity of flat textile fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 2007, 77(2), 105–110, doi: 10.1177/0040517506065892.

ONOFREI, E., ROCHA, A.M., CATARINO, A. The influence of knitted fabrics’ structure on the thermal and moisture management properties. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 2011, 6(4), 1–13, doi: 10.1177/155892501100600403.

BOUSKILL, L., HAVENITH, G., KUKLANE, K., PARSONS, K., WITHEY, W. Relationship between clothing ventilation and thermal insulation. AIHA Journal, 2002, 63(3), 262–268, doi: 10.1080/15428110208984712.

NAYAK, R., KANESALINGAM, S., HOUSHYAR, S., WANG, L., PADHYE, R., VIJAYAN, A. Evaluation of thermal, moisture management and sensorial comfort properties of superabsorbent polyacrylate fabrics for the next-to-skin layer in firefighters’ protective clothing. Textile Research Journal, 2017, 88(9), 1077–1088, doi: 10.1177/0040517517697640.

NASRIN, S., MANDAL, S., ISLAM, M.D.M., PETROVA, A., AGNEW, R.J., BOORADY, L.M. Factors affecting the sweat-drying performance of active sportswear – a review. Textiles, 2023, 3(3), 319–338, doi: 10.3390/textiles3030022.

BIVAINYTĖ, A., MIKUČIONIENĖ, D. Investigation on the air and water vapour permeability of double-layered weft knitted fabrics. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 2011, 19(3), 69–73.

HAVLOVA, M. Air permeability, water vapour permeability and selected structural parameters of woven fabrics. Vlákna a Textil, 2020, 27(1), 12–18.

Fabrics for sportswear [online]. Fabric blog [accessed 9.1.2024]. Available on World Wide Web: <https://blog.fabricuk.com/974-2/>.

BRENDLEY, K.W., STEEB, R. Military applications of microelectromechanical systems. Santa Monica : National Defence Research Institute, 1993, 66 p.

ISO 3801:1977 Textiles – Woven fabrics – Determination of mass per unit length and mass per unit area. Geneva : The International Organization for Standardization, 1977, 1–4.

ISO 5084:1996 Textiles – Determination of thickness of textiles and textile products. Geneva : The International Organization for Standardization, 1996, 1–5.

EN 14971:2006 Textiles – Knitted fabrics – Determination of number of stitches per unit length and unit area. Geneva : International Organization for Standardization, 2006, 1–12.

Dino-lite digital microscope [online]. Dino-Lite [accessed 9.2.2024]. Available on World Wide Web: <https://www.dino-lite.com/index.php>.

EN ISO 9237:1995 Textiles – Determination of the permeability of fabrics to air. Geneva : International Organization for Standardization 1995, 1–5.

ISO 15496:2018 Textiles: Measurement of water vapour permeability of textiles for the purpose of quality control. Geneva : International Organization for Standardization, 2018, 1–13.

Downloads

Published

2024-06-20

Issue

Section

Scientific article

Categories

How to Cite

Salopek Čubrić, I. ., Pavko Čuden, A. ., Čubrić, G. ., & Potočić Matković, V. M. (2024). The Comfort of Knitted Materials for Sportswear: A Focus on Air and Water Vapour Permeability. Tekstilec, 67, 151-165. https://doi.org/10.14502/tekstilec.66.2024029

Similar Articles

1-10 of 66

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)